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Sample of music played on key of D metal tin whistle with plastic fipple. Problems playing these files? The most common whistles today are made of brass tubing, or nickel plated brass tubing, with a plastic fipple mouthpiece.
Other less common variants are the all-metal whistle, the PVC whistle, the Flanna square holed whistle, and the wooden whistle. Gaining popularity as a folk instrument in the early 19th century in the Celtic music revivals, penny whistles now play an integral part of several folk traditions.
The tin whistle is a good starting instrument to learn the uilleann pipes, which has similar finger technique, range of notes and repertoire. The tin whistle is the most popular instrument in Irish traditional music today. These companies are typically either a single individual or a very small group of craftsmen who work closely together.
The instruments are distinguished from the inexpensive whistles in that each whistle is individually manufactured and "voiced" by a skilled person rather than made in a factory. Whistle keys[ edit ] The whistle is tuned diatonicallywhich allows it to be used to easily play music in two major keys a perfect fourth apart and the natural minor key and Dorian mode a major second above the lowest note.
The whistle is identified by its lowest note, which is the tonic of the lower of two major keys whose tonics are a perfect fourth apart that the whistle most easily plays in. Note that this method of determining the key of the instrument is different from the method used to determine the key of a chromatic instrument, which is based on the relationship between notes on a score and sounded pitch.
Whistles are available in a wide variety of different keys. Since the D major key is lower these whistles are identified as D whistles. The next most common whistle tuning is a C whistle, which can easily play notes in the keys of C and F major.
The D whistle is the most common choice for Irish and Scottish music. Although the whistle is essentially a diatonic instrument, it is possible to get notes outside the principal major key of the whistle, either by half-holing partially covering the highest open finger hole or by cross-fingering covering some holes while leaving some higher ones open.
However, half-holing is somewhat more difficult to do correctly, and whistles are available in many keys, so for other keys a whistler will typically use a different whistle instead, reserving half-holing for accidentals.
Some whistle designs allow a single fipple, or mouthpiece, to be used on differently keyed bodies. Low whistle There are larger whistles, which by virtue of being longer and wider produce tones an octave or in rare cases two octaves lower.
Whistles in this category are likely to be made of metal or plastic tubing, sometimes with a tuning-slide head, and are almost always referred to as low whistles but sometimes called concert whistles. The low whistle operates on identical principles to the standard whistles, but musicians in the tradition may consider it a separate instrument.
The term soprano whistle is sometimes used for the higher-pitched whistles when it is necessary to distinguish them from low whistles. Fingering and range[ edit ] Young man demonstrating the use of a tin whistle. Fingering for the diatonic scale on a D tin whistle: With all the holes closed, the whistle generates its lowest note, the tonic of a major scale.
Successively opening holes from the bottom upward produces the rest of the notes of the scale in sequence: With all six holes open, it produces the seventh.
Recorders perform this by "pinching" open the dorsal thumb hole. Perhaps the most effective and most used cross fingering is that which produces a flattened form of the seventh note B flat instead of B on a C whistle, for example, or C natural instead of C sharp on a D whistle.
This makes available another major scale F on a C whistle, G on a D whistle. The standard range of the whistle is two octaves. It is possible to make sounds above this range, by blowing with sufficient force, but, in most musical contexts, the result will be loud and out of tune due to a cylindrical bore.
Ornamentation[ edit ] Traditional whistle playing uses a number of ornaments to embellish the music, including cuts, strikes and rolls. Most playing is legato with ornaments to create breaks between notes, rather than tongued. The traditional music concept of the word "ornamentation" differs somewhat from that of European classical music in that ornaments are more commonly changes in how a note is articulated rather than the addition of separately-perceived notes to the piece.
Cuts Cuts are very briefly lifting a finger above the note being sounded without interrupting airflow into the whistle.
For example, a player playing a low D on a D whistle can cut the note by very briefly lifting the first finger of his or her lower hand.The Tin Flute by Gabriel Roy is a Canadian fiction set up in the early ’s during the Second World War when Canada was going through the great depression.
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The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening.
According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones.