He must have strong communication skills. That person should be ready to work in a diverse population.
Among his many contributions to efforts to recognize and address the threat of emerging infections, Lederberg co-chaired the committees that produced two landmark Institute of Medicine IOM reports, Emerging Infections: As the papers in this chapter demonstrate, this framework continues to guide research to elucidate the origins of emerging infectious threats, to inform the analysis of recent patterns of disease emergence, and to identify risks for future disease emergence events so as to enable early detection and response in the event of an outbreak, and perhaps even predict its occurrence.
Using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and H5N1 influenza as examples, Morse demonstrates how zoonotic pathogens gain access to human populations.
While many zoonotic pathogens periodically infect humans, few become adept at transmitting or propagating themselves, Morse observes. Human activity, however, is making this transition increasingly easy by creating efficient pathways for pathogen transmission around the globe.
Using a rigorous, formal methodology, Woolhouse and Gaunt produced and refined a catalog of the nearly 1, recognized human pathogen species. The authors note four attributes of these novel pathogens that they expect will describe most future emergent microbes: It depicts the approximately 1, pathogens capable of infecting humans, of which are capable of human-to-human transmission, and among which fewer than have the potential to cause epidemic or endemic disease; evolution—over a range of time scales—drives pathogens up the pyramid.
The paper concludes with a discussion of the public health implications of the pyramid model, which suggests that ongoing global ecological change will continue to produce novel infectious diseases at or near the current rate of three per year.
In contrast to other contributors to this chapter, who focus on what, why, and where infectious diseases emerge, Jonathan Eisen, of the University of California, Davis, considers how new functions and processes evolve to generate novel pathogens. Knowledge of microbial genomes, and the functions they encode, is severely limited, Eisen observes.
Among 40 phyla of bacteria, for example, most of the available genomic sequences were from only three phyla; sequencing of Archaea and Eukaryote genomes has proceeded in a similarly sporadic manner. These include constructing a model to predict relative risks for Nipah virus reemergence in Malaysia, where a outbreak devastated a thriving pig farming industry; identifying likely sources by which West Nile virus could spread to Hawaii, the Galapagos, and Barbados; and determining likely reservoirs of H5N1 influenza for specific geographic locations worldwide.
Daszak discusses the implications of hotspot location for global infectious disease surveillance, and describes how he and coworkers have used their knowledge of hotspots to target surveillance for Nipah virus in India, and also to discover a virus with zoonotic potential in Bangladesh.
Stanley Falkow, who is included in this volume, has extensively studied Yersinia pestis, the responsible organism, and given us important insights into its pathogenesis.
Another devastating disease that was once much feared is smallpox, which is said to have killed more people than all the wars in history. The eradication of smallpox was therefore a triumph of public health.
Ironically, smallpox has the unique property of being the only species to date that human beings have intentionally driven to extinction. While we have unintentionally driven so many species to extinction, it is nice to know we can actually intentionally do some good.
Cholera was, of course, a very big concern in the nineteenth century and remains a concern today, especially in places like Bangladesh, as Gerald Keusch of Boston University and a member of the Forum can affirm.
The influenza pandemic is one of our paradigms of a nightmare emerging infectious disease event. It may very well have been the greatest natural disaster in the early days of the twentieth century.The book helps you to know since the foundation of gods works, many more returns.
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Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke 's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus 's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.
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