According to statistics, Aids in Africa killed an estimated 1.
Page 1 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. Moreover, given the chronic underreporting and under-diagnosis in developing countries, the actual number of AIDS cases may be four times as high.
The official statistics also do not reflect the millions of people who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV but have yet to develop symptoms of AIDS.
HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa. Although the continent is home to about percent of the world's population,  more than two-thirds of the total infected worldwide – some 35 million people – were Africans, of whom 15 million have already died. . Exploring Disease in Africa Introduction 2 Table of Contents Political Map of Africa Curriculum Introduction Main Themes How to use this curriculum Why Africa African Action Against AIDS Generic Drugs & South Africa Availability and Regional Differences Health and Human Rights Ethics of Scarcity. Africa is the world’s largest region affected by the HIV and AIDS virus. According to statistics, Aids in Africa killed an estimated million people last lausannecongress2018.com estimated population of million people in Africa was living with HIV at the end of while an additional million people were infected with the virus during that year.
The situation is critical in sub-Saharan Africa, where the World Health Organization WHO estimates that approximately 11 million adults and as many as 1 million children have been infected with HIV, and where basic infrastructure, financial, and managerial resources, as well as health-care personnel to deal with the catastrophe, are all extremely scarce.
Sub-Saharan Africa is geographically, demographically, socially, and culturally heterogeneous, and the extent and spread of HIV infection and AIDS have accordingly been heterogeneous as well.
Thus, it is difficult to generalize about the AIDS epidemic in the region.
There have been only a few nationally or regionally representative seroprevalence studies conducted to date in sub-Saharan Africa, and information is available predominantly on the groups with the highest risk of HIV infection.
Yet some overall characteristics and trends can be seen. The most afflicted countries are geographically concentrated: Patients seeking treatment today probably contracted the virus years ago.
Thus, no matter how serious the situation currently appears, there will be very large increases in the number of AIDS deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the future. By the yeardemographers project that life expectancy will fall from 66 to 33 years in Zambia, from 70 to 40 years in Zimbabwe, from 68 to 40 years in Kenya, and from 59 to 31 years in Uganda.
Public awareness of the AIDS epidemic is extremely high throughout Africa, and condom sales have risen dramatically across the continent in the past few years. Other promising findings include a recent reduction in the prevalence of HIV-1 infection among young males in rural Uganda and evidence that treating sexually transmitted diseases STDs in rural Tanzania may reduce the spread of HIV.
But many interventions have been experimental and small scale and so are not sufficient to reverse the course of the epidemic. At the same time, discovery of an effective vaccine or treatment shows little promise. Furthermore, even if a vaccine or cure were developed, it would probably not be sufficient to bring a speedy end to the epidemic—because of imperfect effectiveness, cost, and less than universal distribution and acceptance.
In addition, many of the millions of people already infected with HIV are unaware of their status and so represent a pool capable of passing the virus to new cohorts. More and better social and behavioral research is needed to develop more effective and acceptable preventive strategies and to find more effective ways of mitigating the negative effects of the epidemic.
Perhaps the most important argument for immediate action to slow the further spread of HIV is that, as suggested above, in many parts of the region the epidemic has not yet peaked. HIV tends to spread quickly among individuals whose behaviors place them at high risk of infection, such as commercial sex workers and their clients; it spreads thereafter—at first slowly and then at an accelerated pace—into the general population.
In many sub-Saharan African countries the disease has already spread widely, but in others it has not. Because the cost-effectiveness of prevention efforts declines rapidly as the epidemic spreads, the timing of interventions is crucial. Failure to control the epidemic now will mean that far more costly and difficult interventions will be necessary in the future.
Another important reason for acting now to revitalize programs to combat Page 3 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This has not proved to be the case. The most optimistic reading of the results of these prevention efforts is that they have been less successful than was at first hoped.
At the same time, leadership of the global effort to fight AIDS is changing hands, creating an important opportunity to review what has been achieved to date and to develop a coherent global strategy for the foreseeable future.
Finally, for a number of reasons, current AIDS-prevention efforts may be reaching a plateau. This reduction in assistance has had enormous costs, in both human and economic terms. It also increases the urgency for action by Africans and their governments.
We recommend research and data in the social and behavioral sciences to improve and extend existing successful programs and devise more effective strategies for preventing HIV transmission, as well as support efforts to mitigate the impact of the AIDS epidemic.
Our recommendations cover five areas: Our five key recommendations are numbered separately from our other recommendations, which are numbered by chapter in the order in which they appear.
Planners and policy makers must be cognizant of the societal context and attempt to modify it in ways that are conducive to and supportive of change.
Effective interventions must target not only individual perceptions and behavior, but also their larger context. These factors are often exacerbated by social upheavals related to economic distress, political conflicts, and wars.
Of course, there is enormous variation in the situation from country to country; particularly noteworthy are the differences between West Africa and East and Southern Africa. No single factor, biological or behavioral, determines the epidemiologic pattern of HIV infection.
Instead, a complex interaction among several variables determines how and where HIV spreads in a population.Introduction to community action on HIV/AIDS. What is in this guide? This guide contains an introduction to the four main areas of action the can be taken at a local level.
It deals with: Important things to understand about HIV/AIDS. Introduction to community projects on HIV/AIDS. The cluster of government bodies involved in trying to combat HIV/Aids is called the HIV/Aids and TB Cluster, which is made up of the directorate for HIV/Aids and STIs, the Government Aids Action Plan (GAAP) and the directorate for tuberculosis.
Created at the Abuja Special Summit, AIDS Watch Africa (AWA) is an entity of the African Union with the specific mandate to lead advocacy, accountability and resource mobilization efforts to advance a robust African response to end AIDS, TB and malaria by Read chapter SUMMARY: The AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to affect all facets of life throughout the subcontinent.
Deaths related to AIDS h. Suggested Citation:"1 INTRODUCTION."National Research Council. Preventing and Mitigating AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research and Data Priorities for the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Intro & Conclusion to Final Essay. PSCI F Final Essay Allison Beers Introduction Growth is biased, leaning more favorably to those institutions and countries with the most money, knowledge, and development. especially in terms of curbing diseases like HIV/AIDS.
Quantifying these standards is difficult, yet the following measurements will.