The incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal sleep-related disorder characterized by compound hallucinations experienced during brief phases of apparent wakefulness. It tends to be accompanied by sleep paralysis, anxiety, vegetative symptoms, and feelings of suffocation.
Narcolepsy is a long term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles. Symptoms include periods of excessive daytime sleepiness that usually lasts from seconds to minutes and may occur at any time.
These spells can be brought on by strong emotions. Less commonly there may be vivid dream like images or the inability to move for a period of time during falling asleep or upon waking-up.
The total amount people with narcolepsy sleephowever, remains unchanged. The cause of narcolepsy is unknown. Often those affected have low levels of the neurotransmitter hypocretin which may be due to an autoimmune disorder.
A phenomenon that occurs when group discussion strengthens a group's dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction Group therapy The simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group. A number of competing and complementary models for its development are described, followed by a working definition of frailty. The clinical manifestation and neuropathological characteristics, such as the deposition of beta-amyloid protein, resemble those related to human Alzheimer's disease (AD). There has been an advance in. To evaluate the observed safety signal suggesting association between Pandemrix vaccination and abrupt manifestation of narcolepsy in childhood and adolescence,, we first estimated the incidence of narcolepsy from register data and then performed a population based retrospective cohort study to verify the signal and to characterize its.
Trauma, certain infections, toxins, or psychological stress may also play a role. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms and sleep studiesafter ruling out other potential causes.
Excessive daytime sleepiness can also be caused by other sleep disorders such as sleep apneamajor depressive disorderanemiaheart failuredrinking alcoholand not getting enough sleep. Cataplexy may be mistaken for seizures. While there is no cure a number of lifestyle changes and medications may help.
Lifestyle changes include taking regular short naps and sleep hygiene. Medications used include modafinilsodium oxybateand methylphenidate.
While initially fairly effective tolerance to the benefits may develop. Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs may improve cataplexy. The condition often begins in childhood. Men and women are affected equally.
Untreated narcolepsy increases the risk of motor vehicle collisions and falls. The term narcolepsy is from the French narcolepsie. Signs and symptoms There are two main characteristics of narcolepsy: The first, excessive daytime sleepiness EDSoccurs even after adequate night time sleep.
A person with narcolepsy is likely to become drowsy or fall asleep, often at inappropriate times and places, or just be very tired throughout the day.
Narcoleptics are not able to experience the amount of restorative deep sleep that healthy people experience — they are not "over-sleeping".
In fact, narcoleptics live their entire lives in a constant state of extreme sleep deprivation.
Daytime naps may occur with little warning and may be physically irresistible. These naps can occur several times a day. They are typically refreshing, but only for a few hours or less. Vivid dreams may be experienced on a constant or regular basis, even during very brief naps.
Drowsiness may persist for prolonged periods of time or simply never cease. In addition, night-time sleep may be fragmented with frequent awakenings. A second prominent symptom of narcolepsy is abnormal REM sleep. Narcoleptics are unique in that they enter into the REM phase of sleep in the beginnings of sleep, even when sleeping during the day.
The classic symptoms of the disorder, often referred to as the "tetrad of narcolepsy," are cataplexysleep paralysishypnagogic hallucinationsand excessive daytime sleepiness. Other symptoms may include automatic behaviors and night-time wakefulness. These symptoms may not occur in all patients.
Cataplexy is episodic loss of muscle function, ranging from slight weakness such as limpness at the neck or knees, sagging facial muscles, weakness at the knees often referred to as "knee buckling", or inability to speak clearly, to a complete body collapse.
Episodes may be triggered by sudden emotional reactions such as laughterangersurprise, or fearand may last from a few seconds to several minutes. The person remains conscious throughout the episode.
In some cases, cataplexy may resemble epileptic seizures.Apr 10, · I hope this video about my Narcolepsy was beneficial, thanks for watching and in turn aiding in our efforts to spread awareness! 💤 Narcolepsy | Diagnosis Discussion ⚕🗣 Chronically.
The key to the generation of the spike and wave discharge that is characteristic of a seizure is a phenomenon called the paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS).
- ** This is a sudden, large, and unusually long-lasting depolarization that occurs roughly simultaneously in . Psychology Chapter 3. STUDY. PLAY. the popout phenomenon. d) inattentional blindness. a) dual-processing.
The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with the neuroadaptation model. d) a biopsychosocial approach. d) . Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis are two associated features of narcolepsy that can also be found as isolated phenomena or within the context of other clinical conditions.
Since narcolepsy is a prototypical EDS disorder and since the major pathophysiology of narcolepsy (i.e., deficient in hypocretin neurotransmission) has recently been revealed, the discussion of neurophysiological aspects of narcolepsy will help for a general understanding of neurobiology in EDS.
Reduced Number of Hypocretin Neurons in Human Narcolepsy. However, the genetics of human narcolepsy differ significantly from that in these animal models. Most human narcoleptics have no first degree narcoleptic relatives (Guilleminault ), Results and Discussion.